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Shoe scanner technology on the horizon

New technologies licensed to scan people, with their shoes on, at security checkpointsCredit: Photo by Andrea Starr | Pacific Northwest

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New technologies licensed to scan people, with their shoes on, at security checkpoints

Richland, Wash.–Take your shoes off and place them in the bin! That’s been part of the flying experience since 2006. It’s the outcome of a number of threats to the aviation sector that emerged after the fateful events of September 11, 2001, including a failed attempt by an air-borne terrorist to light a fuse hidden in his shoe.

It’s one of the most inconvenient parts of flying and one that can slow the security screening process. But one day soon, even those without a “pre-check” status may be able to keep their shoes on, step on shoe scanner, walk through a next-generation body scanner and speed safely on to their boarding gates.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed the original holographic millimeter wave scanning technology–now used at airports worldwide–which can detect a wide variety of potential weapons or threats concealed under clothing.

Next-generation security scanning

Working with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, researchers at PNNL have expanded and advanced the capabilities of the original scanners, with an eye to improving the passenger experience. The result is a next-generation, high-definition scanner that can identify even smaller threats with fewer false positives. In the process, they designed a similar technology that can screen a passenger’s footwear while on their feet.

PNNL recently licensed the two technologies to Liberty Defense Holdings, Ltd., a concealed weapons detection company. Licensing government-developed technologies to the private sector is one of the missions of national laboratories like PNNL.

“Liberty Defense is committed to protecting the public through its next-generation body and shoe scanning solutions,” said Kannan Krishnaswami, a commercialization manager at PNNL. “With their leadership and experience, they are well positioned to bring PNNL-developed scanners to market, along with threat detection algorithms to enhance security for travelers and people attending events at large venues.”

Two seconds per shoe scan

A shoe scan involves the traveler pausing on a low-profile imaging platform for about two seconds. Electromagnetic waves are used to generate an image of the shoe, which is evaluated to determine if an object may constitute a threat.

The PNNL shoe scanner received an R&D 100 award in 2020 as one of the top 100 innovations of the year.

“Adding the shoe scanner in an airport setting could replace the inconvenient pre-boarding ritual of removing shoes at the checkpoint and potentially speed up the screening process by 15-20 percent,” said Liberty CEO Bill Frain. “Streamlining security processes, while still detecting threats and keeping people safe, is a win-win proposition.”

Keeping safe with your shoes and jackets on

Based on the national need researchers saw for a shoe scanner, PNNL began development using internal R&D funds. DHS funded additional development of the technology through the Science and Technology Directorate’s Screening at Speed program, while also supporting development of a new generation of millimeter wave body scanners that can provide higher resolution images at much lower cost. The original scanner design, previously developed by PNNL, has been widely used for about 15 years as a valuable screening tool at Transportation Security Agency airport checkpoints in the U.S. and abroad.

“The updated HD-Advanced Imaging Technology scanner offers much higher resolution,” said Dave Sheen, who manages the millimeter-wave technology program at PNNL. “Testing shows that the increased resolution improves potential threat detection, while dramatically reducing false alarms compared to the first-generation technology. Reducing false alarms and the secondary screenings they trigger means less direct contact between travelers and security personnel.”

The new system design includes improved antennas and significantly reduces imaging irregularities. With this advancement, airline passengers or people attending large public events may be scanned while wearing light sweaters or jackets, instead of having to take them off before walking through the scanner portal.

Advanced scanning for enhanced security operations

HD body scanners were designed to meet changing performance requirements and identify potential evolving threats, such as weapons, explosives and illicit drugs.

The HD Advanced Imaging Technology system will be able to incorporate the latest threat detection algorithms that may be developed by third parties. Its open architecture will provide operators the flexibility to select and use best-in-class threat detection algorithms instead of being limited to one specific type.

“Liberty Defense envisions building upon and enhancing the capabilities already achieved on the HD-AIT, with the intent to commercialize and manufacture the platform,” said Frain. “The goal is to seamlessly upgrade current systems at airports while preserving the existing footprint.” Frain added that the shoe scanner may be integrated into the base of the next generation HD-AIT. “We see options in various venues for separate scanners or a combined version,” he said.

Dave Atkinson, who manages PNNL’s research on aviation and explosives for DHS, sums up the teamwork that led to the licensing of the new shoe scanner technology and the next-generation HD scanner. “This is a prime example of how federal funding, combined with scientific and technical expertise at a national laboratory, and private industry investment can mature technical inventions and make them available to solve national challenges, create new jobs and increase U.S. competitiveness.”

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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory draws on its distinguishing strengths in chemistry, Earth sciences, biology and data science to advance scientific knowledge and address challenges in sustainable energy and national security. Founded in 1965, PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, which is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. DOE’s Office of Science is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit PNNL’s News Center. Follow us on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram.

Next-generation security scanning

Source: https://bioengineer.org/shoe-scanner-technology-on-the-horizon/

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Reduced microbial stability linked to soil carbon loss in active layer under alpine permafrost degra

Credit: NIEER Chinese researchers have recently discovered links between reduction in microbial stability and soil carbon loss in the active

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Chinese researchers have recently discovered links between reduction in microbial stability and soil carbon loss in the active layer of degraded alpine permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP).

The researchers, headed by Prof. CHEN Shengyun from the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources (NIEER) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and XUE Kai from University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, conducted a combined in-depth analysis of soil microbial communities and their co-occurrence networks in the active permafrost layer along an extensive gradient of permafrost degradation.

The QTP encompasses the largest extent of high-altitude mountain permafrost in the world. This permafrost is different than high-latitude permafrost and stores massive soil carbon. An often ignored characteristic of permafrost is that the carbon pool in the active layer soil is more active and directly affected by climate change, compared to deeper layers.

Triggered by climate warming, permafrost degradation may decrease soil carbon stability and induce massive carbon loss, thus leading to positive carbon-climate feedback. However, microbial-mediated mechanisms for carbon loss from the active layer soil in degraded permafrost still remain unclear.

In this study, the researchers found that alpine permafrost degradation reduced the stability of active layer microbial communities as evidenced by increased sensitivity of microbial composition to environmental change, promoted destabilizing network properties and reduced resistance to node or edge attacking of the microbial network.

They discovered that soil organic carbon loss in severely degraded permafrost is associated with increased microbial dissimilarity, thereby potentially contributing to a positive carbon feedback in alpine permafrost on the QTP.

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The results were published in PNAS in an article entitled “Reduced microbial stability in the active layer is associated with carbon loss under alpine permafrost degradation”.

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Strategic Priority Research Program (A) of CAS and the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program.

Triggered by climate warming, permafrost degradation may decrease soil carbon stability and induce massive carbon loss, thus leading to positive carbon-climate feedback. However, microbial-mediated mechanisms for carbon loss from the active layer soil in degraded permafrost still remain unclear.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/reduced-microbial-stability-linked-to-soil-carbon-loss-in-active-layer-under-alpine-permafrost-degra/

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SNMMI Image of the Year: PET imaging measures cognitive impairment in COVID-19 patients

Credit: G Blazhenets et al., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of

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Credit: G Blazhenets et al., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg.

Reston, VA–The effects of COVID-19 on the brain can be accurately measured with positron emission tomography (PET), according to research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) 2021 Annual Meeting. In the study, newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients, who required inpatient treatment and underwent PET brain scans, were found to have deficits in neuronal function and accompanying cognitive impairment, and in some, this impairment continued six months after their diagnosis. The detailed depiction of areas of cognitive impairment, neurological symptoms and comparison of impairment over a six-month time frame has been selected as SNMMI’s 2021 Image of the Year.

Each year, SNMMI chooses an image that best exemplifies the most promising advances in the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. The state-of-the-art technologies captured in these images demonstrate the capacity to improve patient care by detecting disease, aiding diagnosis, improving clinical confidence, and providing a means of selecting appropriate treatments. This year, the SNMMI Henry N. Wagner, Jr., Image of the Year was chosen from more than 1,280 abstracts submitted to the meeting and voted on by reviewers and the society leadership.

“As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic proceeds, it has become increasingly clear that neurocognitive long-term consequences occur not only in severe COVID-19 cases, but in mild and moderate cases as well. Neurocognitive deficits like impaired memory, disturbed concentration and cognitive problems may persist well beyond the acute phase of the disease,” said Ganna Blazhenets, PhD, a post-doctoral researcher in Medical Imaging at the University Medical Center Freiburg, in Freiburg, Germany.

To study cognitive impairment associated with COVID-19, researchers carried out a prospective study on recently diagnosed COVID-19 patients who required inpatient treatment for non-neurological complaints. A cognitive assessment was performed, followed by imaging with 18F-FDG PET if at least two new neurological symptoms were present. By comparing COVID-19 patients to controls, the Freiburg group established a COVID-19-related covariance pattern of brain metabolism with most prominent decreases in cortical regions. Across patients, the expression of this pattern showed a very high correlation with the patients’ cognitive performance.

Follow-up PET imaging was performed six months after the initial COVID-19 diagnosis. Imaging results showed a significant improvement in the neurocognitive deficits in most patients, accompanied by an almost complete normalization of the brain metabolism.

“We can clearly state that a significant recovery of regional neuronal function and cognition occurs for most COVID-19 patients based on the results of this study. However, it is important to recognize the evidence of longer-lasting deficits in neuronal function and accompanying cognitive deficits is still measurable in some patients six months after manifestation of disease,” noted Blazhenets. “As a result, post-COVID-19 patients with persistent cognitive complaints should be presented to a neurologist and possibly allocated to cognitive rehabilitation programs.”

“18F-FDG PET is an established biomarker of neuronal function and neuronal injury,” stated SNMMI’s Scientific Program Committee chair, Umar Mahmood, MD, PhD. “As shown the Image of the Year, it can be applied to unravel neuronal correlates of the cognitive decline in patients after COVID-19. Since 18F-FDG PET is widely available, it may therefore aid in the diagnostic work-up and follow-up in patients with persistent cognitive impairment after COVID-19.”

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Abstract 41. “Altered regional cerebral function and its association with cognitive impairment in COVID 19: A prospective FDG PET study.” Ganna Blazhenets, Johannes Thurow, Lars Frings and Philipp Meyer, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Nils Schroeter, Tobias Bormann, Cornelius Weiller, Andrea Dressing and Jonas Hosp; Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; and Dirk Wagner, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

All 2021 SNMMI Annual Meeting abstracts can be found online at https://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/62/supplement_1.

About the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) is an international scientific and medical organization dedicated to advancing nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, vital elements of precision medicine that allow diagnosis and treatment to be tailored to individual patients in order to achieve the best possible outcomes.

SNMMI’s members set the standard for molecular imaging and nuclear medicine practice by creating guidelines, sharing information through journals and meetings and leading advocacy on key issues that affect molecular imaging and therapy research and practice. For more information, visit http://www.snmmi.org.

“As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic proceeds, it has become increasingly clear that neurocognitive long-term consequences occur not only in severe COVID-19 cases, but in mild and moderate cases as well. Neurocognitive deficits like impaired memory, disturbed concentration and cognitive problems may persist well beyond the acute phase of the disease,” said Ganna Blazhenets, PhD, a post-doctoral researcher in Medical Imaging at the University Medical Center Freiburg, in Freiburg, Germany.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/snmmi-image-of-the-year-pet-imaging-measures-cognitive-impairment-in-covid-19-patients/

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Scientists demonstrate promising new approach for treating cystic fibrosis

Scientists led by UNC School of Medicine researchers Silvia Kreda, Ph.D., and Rudolph Juliano, Ph.D., created an improved oligonucleotide therapy

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Scientists led by UNC School of Medicine researchers Silvia Kreda, Ph.D., and Rudolph Juliano, Ph.D., created an improved oligonucleotide therapy strategy with the potential for treating other pulmonary diseases, such as COPD and asthma

CHAPEL HILL, NC – UNC School of Medicine scientists led a collaboration of researchers to demonstrate a potentially powerful new strategy for treating cystic fibrosis (CF) and potentially a wide range of other diseases. It involves small, nucleic acid molecules called oligonucleotides that can correct some of the gene defects that underlie CF but are not addressed by existing modulator therapies. The researchers used a new delivery method that overcomes traditional obstacles of getting oligonucleotides into lung cells.

As the scientists reported in the journal Nucleic Acids Research, they demonstrated the striking effectiveness of their approach in cells derived from a CF patient and in mice.

“With our oligonucleotide delivery platform, we were able to restore the activity of the protein that does not work normally in CF, and we saw a prolonged effect with just one modest dose, so we’re really excited about the potential of this strategy,” said study senior author Silvia Kreda, PhD, an associate professor in the UNC Department of Medicine and the UNC Department Biochemistry & Biophysics, and a member of the Marsico Lung Institute at the UNC School of Medicine.

Kreda and her lab collaborated on the study with a team headed by Rudolph Juliano, PhD, Boshamer Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the UNC Department of Pharmacology, and co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer of the biotech startup Initos Pharmaceuticals.

About 30,000 people in the United States have CF, an inherited disorder in which gene mutations cause the functional absence of an important protein called CFTR. Absent CFTR, the mucus lining the lungs and upper airways becomes dehydrated and highly susceptible to bacterial infections, which occur frequently and lead to progressive lung damage.

Treatments for CF now include CFTR modulator drugs, which effectively restore partial CFTR function in many cases. However, CFTR modulators cannot help roughly ten percent of CF patients, often because the underlying gene defect is of the type known as a splicing defect.

CF and splicing defects

Splicing is a process that occurs when genes are copied out – or transcribed – into temporary strands of RNA. A complex of enzymes and other molecules then chops up the RNA strand and re-assembles them, typically after deleting certain unwanted segments. Splicing occurs for most human genes, and cells can re-assemble the RNA segments in different ways so different versions of a protein can be made from a single gene. However, defects in splicing can lead to many diseases – including CF when CFTR’s gene transcript is mis-spliced.

In principle, properly designed oligonucleotides can correct some kinds of splicing defects. In recent years the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two “splice switching oligonucleotide” therapies for inherited muscular diseases.

In practice, though, getting oligonucleotides into cells, and to the locations within cells where they can correct RNA splicing defects, has been extremely challenging for some organs.

“It has been especially difficult to get significant concentrations of oligonucleotides into the lungs to target pulmonary diseases,” Kreda said.

Therapeutic oligonucleotides, when injected into the blood, have to run a long gauntlet of biological systems that are designed to keep the body safe from viruses and other unwanted molecules. Even when oligonucleotides get into cells, the most usually are trapped within vesicles called endosomes, and are sent back outside the cell or degraded by enzymes before they can ever do their work.

A new delivery strategy

The strategy developed by Kreda, Juliano, and their colleagues overcomes these obstacles by adding two new features to splice switching oligonucleotides: Firstly, the oligonucleotides are connected to short, protein-like molecules called peptides that are designed to help them to distribute in the body and get into cells. Secondly, there is a separate treatment with small molecules called OECs, developed by Juliano and Initos, which help the therapeutic oligonucleotides escape their entrapment within endosomes.

The researchers demonstrated this combined approach in cultured airway cells from a human CF patient with a common splicing-defect mutation.

“Adding it just once to these cells, at a relatively low concentration, essentially corrected CFTR to a normal level of functioning, with no evidence of toxicity to the cells,” Kreda said.

The results were much better with than without OECs, and improved with OEC dose.

There is no mouse model for splicing-defect CF, but the researchers successfully tested their general approach using a different oligonucleotide in a mouse model of a splicing defect affecting a reporter gene. In these experiments, the researchers observed that the correction of the splicing defect in the mouse lungs lasted for at least three weeks after a single treatment – hinting that patients taking such therapies might need only sporadic dosing.

The researchers now plan further preclinical studies of their potential CF treatment in preparation for possible clinical trials.

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Yan Dang, Catharina van Heusden, Veronica Nickerson, Felicity Chung, Yang Wang, Nancy Quinney, Martina Gentzsch, and Scott Randell were other contributors to this study from the Marsico Lung Institute; Ryszard Kole a co-author from the UNC Department of Pharmacology.

The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and the National Institutes of Health supported this work.

Scientists Demonstrate Promising New Approach for Treating Cystic Fibrosis

Source: https://bioengineer.org/scientists-demonstrate-promising-new-approach-for-treating-cystic-fibrosis/

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