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Living with autonomous systems “we can trust”

New report calls for greater input from society on future direction of autonomyCredit: The Computing Community Consortium (CCC) Autonomous systems

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Autonomous systems are affecting virtually all aspects of society, so future designs must be guided by a broad range of societal stakeholders. That’s according to a new report led by scientists in the Oden Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences at The University of Texas at Austin.

Ufuk Topcu of the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics led a yearlong effort involving more than 100 autonomy experts nationwide in the completion of a report titled “Assured Autonomy: Path Toward Living With Autonomous Systems We Can Trust.”

From spacecraft design to health care, vehicles to smart-cities planning, autonomous systems help us determine how society should run as a matter of routine. Yet the safety, security and regulation of these systems are still not prioritized.

“The management of autonomous systems needs to be at the crossing of science, technology, society, policy and governance,” Topcu said.

Commissioned by The Computing Community Consortium (CCC) — enabling high-impact research through state, industry and academic engagement within the computing community — the report begins by listing technologies that have disrupted society in the past. From the printing press “democratizing knowledge” to the industrial revolution “replacing man with machine” to more recently, the internet making instant global communications a given.

We are now witnessing the age of autonomous systems, where both humans and human intelligence can live harmoniously with machines and machine intelligence, assuming the right approach is taken now.

“Science and technology have always disrupted the status quo,” the report said. “But these systems are different from earlier technologies. Replacing humans and human intelligence with machines and machine intelligence is replacing within existing frameworks of laws, ethics, morality, norms, as well as an existing technology.”

With autonomy, a technical flaw in the software of a system, for example, can’t be seen as merely a bug. “That bug could be a potential violation of law and/or morality,” Topcu said.

The challenges faced require interdisciplinary approaches. “Autonomous systems are not just engineering marvels. They have an influence on individuals, groups, and even the culture as a whole,” said Art Markman of UT’s College of Liberal Arts and director of the IC2 Institute. “Engaging experts from a range of disciplines, including the humanities and the social and behavioral sciences, will be a crucial step to avoid unintended consequences of the deployment of new technologies.”

The direction taken by autonomous technologies is currently guided almost exclusively by scientists and engineers. According to Karen Willcox, director of the Oden Institute, it is time to “stretch our interdisciplinary thinking beyond the STEM fields.”

“Autonomy is a prime example of a domain where the interdisciplinary approaches of computational science – weaving together rigorous mathematical modeling with advanced computing and domain expertise – will play a critical role in developing better, safer systems,” Willcox said.

“But there is an urgent need to build deep collaborations in research and education with humanists and social scientists. This is a challenging but exciting future prospect.”

The core recommendation of the report is the creation of a network of institutes that can easily share ideas, concerns and, ultimately, develop a regulatory and quality assurance framework that underpins future advancements. The CCC calls for the implementation of a national research strategy for assurance with stakeholders in government, academia, industry and society all playing their part.

“Autonomy is a socioeconomic opportunity as well as a challenge, and the public will both perceive and be affected by it unevenly,” Topcu said.

The broader impact of autonomous technologies is a growing priority for researchers at UT Austin.

“Both basic and applied research in autonomous and AI technologies, particularly at UT, is increasingly focused on values-based designs,” said interim Vice President for Research Alison R. Preston. “Outlining the potential value of new technologies at the earliest design stages can limit the potential for unintended, negative consequences once a new technology is deployed. Understanding how to design autonomous systems that provide value to multiple stakeholders requires true collaboration, not just within any one university but among them. I’m proud that the Oden Institute is helping lead that charge.”

“Assured Autonomy: Path Toward Living With Autonomous Systems We Can Trust” is the product of several workshops facilitated by Ufuk Topcu and participating members of the CCC organizing committee: Nadya Bliss and Nancy Cooke (Arizona State University), Missy Cummings (Duke University), Ashley Llorens (Johns Hopkins University), Howard Shrobe (MIT), and Lenore Zuck (University of Illinois at Chicago).

“The management of autonomous systems needs to be at the crossing of science, technology, society, policy and governance,” Topcu said.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/living-with-autonomous-systems-we-can-trust/

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Study: Telemedicine use disparity during COVID-19 among head and neck cancer patients

Patients more likely to complete a virtual visit by telephone, not videoCredit: Henry Ford Health System DETROIT (December 2, 2020)

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DETROIT (December 2, 2020) – The use of telemedicine services has shown to be exceptionally effective in meeting the health care needs of patients throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. But an analysis by Henry Ford Health System found that socioeconomic factors may affect certain patient populations on how they use the technology for accessing care.

In a Research Letter published in the Journal of the American Medical Association’s Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford researchers report that head and neck cancer patients who were low-income, on Medicaid or uninsured were more likely to complete a virtual visit by telephone rather than by video. They also said women with a lower median household income were less likely to complete a telemedicine visit than men in the same income bracket.

Researchers said further study was needed to explain patients’ reticence with completing a video visit, which provides a more comprehensive health care assessment than a phone call with their doctor. “While virtual care may provide a promising platform for expanded access to care in some patients, it must be implemented in a way that it doesn’t create barriers to already disadvantaged patient populations,” said Samantha Tam, M.D., a study co-author and otolaryngologist in Henry Ford’s Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery.

The pandemic-driven need for accessing care using telemedicine services prompted researchers to evaluate whether socioeconomic factors impacted a patient’s ability to receive virtual care. In their retrospective study, they analyzed census-based socioeconomic data of head and neck cancer patients who had a telemedicine visit between March 17 and April 24, 2020 and compared the results to a similar cohort from the same time frame in 2019.

Data included patients’ age, sex, race, insurance status, household income, education, marital and employment status, and English-speaking households. Patient visits were categorized by virtual visits using live audio and video, visits completed by telephone only, in-person visits and no-show or canceled visits.

Data from 401 patient encounters during the 2020 study period was collected. From those numbers, 346 encounters (86.3%) were completed by 234 patients. In-person visits consisted of 87 patients (25.1%), 170 (49.1%) were virtual visits and 89 (23.6%) were telephone visits. In comparison, the 2019 study found 551 of 582 visits (94.7%) were completed by 394 patients, with no telemedicine visits completed that year.

“We know that access to smartphones and video technology is not universal but almost everyone has access to a telephone,” said Vivian Wu, M.D., a study co-author and otolaryngologist. “As virtual care expands during and after this pandemic, we must keep in mind that a phone call remains an important communication method for patients to talk to their doctor.”

Since the retrospective study was observation-based, the research team did not evaluate whether patients had access to mobile “smart” phones and internet connectivity.

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MEDIA CONTACT: Sal Giacona / [email protected] / 313-421-9108

About Henry Ford Health System

Founded in 1915 by Henry Ford himself, Henry Ford Health System is a non-profit, integrated health system committed to improving people’s lives through excellence in the science and art of healthcare and healing. Henry Ford Health System includes six hospitals including Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit; Henry Ford Macomb Hospitals; Henry Ford Wyandotte Hospital; Henry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital; Henry Ford Allegiance in Jackson, MI; and Henry Ford Kingswood Hospital – an inpatient psychiatric hospital.

Henry Ford Health System also includes Henry Ford Medical Group: Henry Ford Physician Network; more than 250 outpatient facilities; Henry Ford Pharmacy; Henry Ford OptimEyes; and other healthcare services. Our not-for-profit health plan, Health Alliance Plan – HAP – provides health coverage for more than 540,000 people.

As one of the nation’s leading academic medical centers, Henry Ford Health System trains more than 3,000 medical students, residents, and fellows annually in more than 50 accredited programs, and has trained nearly 40% of the state’s physicians. Our dedication to education and research is supported by nearly $100 million in annual grants from the National Institutes of Health and other public and private foundations.

Henry Ford Health System employs more than 33,000 people, including more than 1,600 physicians, more than 6,600 nurses and 5,000 allied health professionals. For more information, go to henryford.com.

The pandemic-driven need for accessing care using telemedicine services prompted researchers to evaluate whether socioeconomic factors impacted a patient’s ability to receive virtual care. In their retrospective study, they analyzed census-based socioeconomic data of head and neck cancer patients who had a telemedicine visit between March 17 and April 24, 2020 and compared the results to a similar cohort from the same time frame in 2019.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/study-telemedicine-use-disparity-during-covid-19-among-head-and-neck-cancer-patients/

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Science organization elects Army researcher as fellow

Credit: U.S. Army RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. — The American Association for the Advancement of Science elected an Army scientist

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Credit: U.S. Army

RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. — The American Association for the Advancement of Science elected an Army scientist as a 2020 fellow for his important contributions to science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Dr. Cliff Wang, network sciences branch chief for the Army Research Office, an element of the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command, now known as DEVCOM, Army Research Laboratory, contributed to the field of science of security, outstanding leadership in national research and transforming results into high impact cyber defense capabilities.

“We’re excited to see Dr. Wang’s research contributions recognized at a global level,” said Dr. Randy Zachery, chief, Information Science Division, ARO. “His efforts to lead scientific discovery in the fifth warfighting domain, cyber, are essential for the Army to protect our long-term national security.”

The group is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom. Its council elected 489 members as new lifelong fellows. These individuals will be recognized for their contributions to science and technology during the February 2021 AAAS Annual Meeting.

Wang leads the Army’s extramural basic science research program to help establish scientific foundations of information assurance and to create new knowledge in the field. Through partnership with other federal funding agencies, research labs, academic institutions, and industry, his branch seeks to build revolutionary capabilities in communication networks, multi-agent network control, and social and information networks, to maintain U.S. superiority in network science and its dominance in innovation.

A graduate of North Carolina State University, Wang earned his doctorate in computer engineering in 1996. He has been conducting research in the area of computer vision, medical imaging, high speed networks and most recently information security. He has authored more than 60 technical papers and three Internet standards RFCs. He also authored/edited 20 books in the area of information security and holds four U.S. patents on information security system development.

Since 2003, Wang has been managing ARO’s extramural research portfolio in information assurance. In 2007, the Army promoted him to branch chief of Computing Sciences, while at the same time he managed his program in cybersecurity. He now serves as branch chief of Network Sciences.

Wang also holds adjunct professor appointments at both Department of Computer Science and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at NC State University.

Additionally, Wang is an IEEE fellow and received the 2020 IEEE Big Data Security Pioneer Award.

AAAS fellows are elected each year by their peers serving on the Council of AAAS, the organization’s member-run governing body. The title recognizes important contributions to STEM disciplines, including pioneering research, leadership within a given field, teaching and mentoring, fostering collaborations, and advancing public understanding of science.

Previous AAAS Fellows include inventor Thomas Edison, sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois, anthropologist Margaret Mead, computer scientist Grace Hopper, physicist Steven Chu, and astronaut Ellen Ochoa.

In order to be considered for the rank of fellow, an AAAS member must be nominated by three previously elected fellows, the steering group of a AAAS section, or the organization’s CEO. Nominations go through a two-step review process, with steering groups reviewing nominations in their section and the AAAS Council voting on the final list.

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DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory is an element of the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command. As the Army’s corporate research laboratory, ARL is operationalizing science to achieve transformational overmatch. Through collaboration across the command’s core technical competencies, DEVCOM leads in the discovery, development and delivery of the technology-based capabilities required to make Soldiers more successful at winning the nation’s wars and come home safely. DEVCOM is a major subordinate command of the Army Futures Command.

Wang leads the Army’s extramural basic science research program to help establish scientific foundations of information assurance and to create new knowledge in the field. Through partnership with other federal funding agencies, research labs, academic institutions, and industry, his branch seeks to build revolutionary capabilities in communication networks, multi-agent network control, and social and information networks, to maintain U.S. superiority in network science and its dominance in innovation.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/science-organization-elects-army-researcher-as-fellow/

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AI abdominal fat measure predicts heart attack and stroke

Credit: Radiological Society of North America OAK BROOK, Ill. – Automated deep learning analysis of abdominal CT images produces a

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OAK BROOK, Ill. – Automated deep learning analysis of abdominal CT images produces a more precise measurement of body composition and predicts major cardiovascular events, such as heart attack and stroke, better than overall weight or body mass index (BMI), according to a study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

“Established cardiovascular risk models rely on factors like weight and BMI that are crude surrogates of body composition,” said Kirti Magudia, M.D., Ph.D., an abdominal imaging and ultrasound fellow at the University of California San Francisco. “It’s well established that people with the same BMI can have markedly different proportions of muscle and fat. These differences are important for a variety of health outcomes.”

Unlike BMI, which is based on height and weight, a single axial CT slice of the abdomen visualizes the volume of subcutaneous fat area, visceral fat area and skeletal muscle area. However, manually measuring these individual areas is time intensive and costly.

As a radiology resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Dr. Magudia was part of a multidisciplinary team of researchers, including radiologists, a data scientist and biostatistician, who developed a fully automated method using deep learning–a type of artificial intelligence (AI)–to determine body composition metrics from abdominal CT images.

“Abdominal CT scans that are routinely performed provide a more granular way of looking at body composition, but we’re not currently taking advantage of it,” Dr. Magudia said.

The study cohort was derived from the 33,182 abdominal CT outpatient exams performed on 23,136 patients at Partners Healthcare in Boston in 2012. The researchers identified 12,128 patients who were free of major cardiovascular and cancer diagnoses at the time of imaging. Mean age of the patients was 52 years, and 57% of patients were women.

The researchers selected the L3 CT slice (from the third lumbar spine vertebra) and calculated body composition areas for each patient. Patients were then divided into four quartiles based on the normalized values of subcutaneous fat area, visceral fat area and skeletal muscle area.

In this retrospective study, it was determined which of these 12,128 patients had a myocardial infarction (heart attack) or stroke within 5 years after their index abdominal CT scan. The researchers found 1,560 myocardial infarctions and 938 strokes occurred in this study group.

Statistical analysis demonstrated that visceral fat area was independently associated with future heart attack and stroke. BMI was not associated with heart attack or stroke.

“The group of patients with the highest proportion of visceral fat area were more likely to have a heart attack, even when adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors,” said Dr. Magudia. “The group of patients with the lowest amount of visceral fat area were protected against stroke in the years following the abdominal CT exam.”

“These results demonstrate that precise measures of body muscle and fat compartments achieved through CT outperform traditional biomarkers for predicting risk for cardiovascular outcomes,” she added.

According to Dr. Magudia, this work demonstrates that fully automated and normalized body composition analysis could now be applied to large-scale research projects.

“This work shows the promise of AI systems to add value to clinical care by extracting new information from existing imaging data,” Dr. Magudia said. “The deployment of AI systems would allow radiologists, cardiologists and primary care doctors to provide better care to patients at minimal incremental cost to the health care system.”

This paper is the recipient of an RSNA 2020 Trainee Research Prize.

Co-authors are Christopher P. Bridge, D.Phil., Camden P. Bay, Ph.D., Florian J. Fintelmann, M.D., Ana Babic, Ph.D., Katherine P. Andriole, Ph.D., Brian M. Wolpin, M.D., and Michael H. Rosenthal, M.D., Ph.D.

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For more information and images, visit RSNA.org/press20. Press account required to view embargoed materials.

RSNA is an association of radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and related scientists promoting excellence in patient care and health care delivery through education, research and technologic innovation. The Society is based in Oak Brook, Illinois. (RSNA.org)

Editor’s note: The data in these releases may differ from those in the published abstract and those actually presented at the meeting, as researchers continue to update their data right up until the meeting. To ensure you are using the most up-to-date information, please call the RSNA media relations team at Newsroom at 1-630-590-7762.

For patient-friendly information on abdominal CT, visit RadiologyInfo.org.

“Abdominal CT scans that are routinely performed provide a more granular way of looking at body composition, but we’re not currently taking advantage of it,” Dr. Magudia said.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/ai-abdominal-fat-measure-predicts-heart-attack-and-stroke/

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