Connect with us

Bioengineer

Benefits of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine outweigh its risks

Pausing AstraZeneca vaccinations because of suspected links to deadly blood clots could allow COVID-19 to continue to spread, cause more

Published

on

Pausing AstraZeneca vaccinations because of suspected links to deadly blood clots could allow COVID-19 to continue to spread, cause more deaths.

Credit: Davide Faranda, Tommaso Alberti, Maxence Arutkin, Valerio Lembo, and Valerio Lucarini

WASHINGTON, April 27, 2021 — The AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is suspected of being linked to a small number of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) cases, which recently emerged within Europe as millions of people received vaccinations. This led several countries to suspend AstraZeneca injections and investigate the causal links to DVT.

Researchers within Europe teamed up to explore a hypothesis that pausing AstraZeneca vaccinations, even for a short duration, could cause additional deaths from the faster spread of COVID-19 within a population of susceptible individuals.

In Chaos, from AIP Publishing, researchers report using an epidemiological susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) model and statistical analysis of publicly available data to estimate excess deaths resulting from suspending AstraZeneca vaccinations and those potentially linked to DVT-adverse events in France and Italy.

They concluded the benefits of deploying the AstraZeneca vaccine greatly outweigh its associated risks, and relative benefits are wider in situations where the reproduction number is larger.

The SEIR model was discussed in a paper, published by Chaos, titled “Modeling the second wave of COVID-19 infections in France and Italy via a stochastic SEIR model.” It was able to predict the magnitude and timing of the second wave of the disease in France and Italy.

“Despite its simplicity, the model is able to propagate uncertainties via adding interactivity as a source of randomness within the data,” said Davide Faranda, from Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement and the London Mathematical Laboratory. “It mimics our ignorance of the exact parameters of the model due to testing capacities and evolving political and medical protocols.”

Risk-benefit analysis is performed by using a methodology inspired by the Fermi estimates. The group compares the excess deaths due to temporal restriction of the AstraZeneca vaccine’s deployment and excess deaths due to its possible side effects. Given the many uncertainties of possible side effects of the vaccine, they resorted to making worst-case scenario calculations to provide a robust upper bound to the related excess deaths.

“Our work shows suspending AstraZeneca vaccinations in France and Italy for three days without replacing it with another vaccine led to about 260 and 130 additional deaths, respectively,” said Faranda. “The difference between the two countries’ number of deaths is due to their different epidemiological situations and, in particular, to the higher basic reproduction number R0 measured in Italy with respect to France on March 15, 2021.”

The group analyzed the case of resuming vaccinations at a doubled rate for the same number of days as the vaccination interruption.

“Excess deaths are still on the same order of magnitude as those observed by resuming vaccinations at the same rate as before the interruption but scaled down by a factor of two,” said Faranda. “This is an evident outcome of nonlinear effects of epidemiological dynamics. Those who have not been vaccinated can contaminate other individuals before vaccination resumes.”

Even if several countries have resumed or are about to resume AstraZeneca vaccinations, the researchers show the effect of the interruption is hard to counterbalance and will require doubling down on deployment of vaccines. For large countries where AstraZeneca vaccinations have resumed, confidence in vaccines has been reduced by a nonnegligible percentage.

“The analysis presented here was performed with a parsimonious but well posed and tested model, and we hope our results will be the starting point for more detailed, more advanced, and more mature investigations with sophisticated models and data collection exercises,” said Faranda.

A first proof of the validity of their estimates is the report of seven DVT deaths per 18 million vaccinations within the U.K., a value that is in line with the group’s work based on data available a few weeks ago and assuming a standard fatality rate of DVT from AstraZeneca vaccinations.

###

The article “Interrupting vaccination policies can greatly spread SARS-CoV-2 and enhance mortality from COVID-19 disease: The AstraZeneca case for France and Italy” is authored by Davide Faranda, Tommaso Alberti, Maxence Arutkin, Valerio Lembo, and Valerio Lucarini. It will appear in Chaos on April 27, 2021 (DOI: 10.1063/5.0050887). After that date, it can be accessed at https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0050887.

ABOUT THE JOURNAL

Chaos is devoted to increasing the understanding of nonlinear phenomena in all areas of science and engineering and describing their manifestations in a manner comprehensible to researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines. See https://aip.scitation.org/journal/cha.

Researchers within Europe teamed up to explore a hypothesis that pausing AstraZeneca vaccinations, even for a short duration, could cause additional deaths from the faster spread of COVID-19 within a population of susceptible individuals.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/benefits-of-astrazeneca-covid-19-vaccine-outweigh-its-risks/

benefits-of-astrazeneca-covid-19-vaccine-outweigh-its-risks

Bioengineer

$1 million grant to address cold storage logistics in vaccine delivery

Credit: Penn State College of Engineering COVID-19 vaccines have been tested, validated and administered to millions of people around the

Published

on

COVID-19 vaccines have been tested, validated and administered to millions of people around the world. But in some countries, the vaccines have yet to arrive in great enough numbers.

One significant hurdle is that the vaccines must be stored between 36 and 46 degrees Fahrenheit to retain their full efficacy, according to the Centers for Disease Control. To ensure the proper temperature, the vaccines need a refrigerated supply chain, also known as a cold chain, as they are distributed across the globe.

“If they are in warm temperatures, COVID vaccines and other medications are susceptible to degradation, which means they lose potency,” said Medina, who heads the Medina Group Precision Therapeutics and Bioresponsive Materials Lab at Penn State. “And the cold storage supply chain is expensive to maintain, with several transport steps necessary from the manufacturer to the distributer to the provider facility.”

To address that challenge, Medina and his team plan to develop fluorochemical dispersants, known as “FTags,” which coat the proteins within the vaccine liquids to stabilize them thermally.

“The FTags dissolve the proteins in a fluorine-based liquid, which yields proteins that we believe may be stable at elevated temperatures, without compromising their structure or function,” Medina said. “When dissolved in the fluorine-based liquid, the proteins also are immune to contamination by microorganisms and enzymes.”

Fluorochemicals are used in a range of applications, such as in making surfaces resistant to scratches and chemical degradation, as in the case of non-stick cookware.

Eventually, Medina plans to study the use of fluorochemical coatings in other biological products, with the goal of eliminating the need to move any pharmaceutical via a cold chain.

“This will allow access to medications in places where currently there is not,” Medina said. “For example, a soldier at war could be exposed to a harmful chemical agent. A fluorochemical-coated protein, which can be carried without refrigeration, could neutralize that agent immediately. This is part of DARPA’s interest in supplying this grant.”

The grant is part of DARPA’s Young Faculty Award program, which provides funding, mentoring and networking opportunities to faculty early in their careers who plan to focus their research on Department of Defense and national security interests.

In 2020, Medina published a study in ACS Nano on delivering therapeutic medications directly to a precise area of the body through an acoustically sensitive carrier, guided by ultrasound. The proposed DARPA-funded study is a spin-off of that study’s findings.

“Janna Sloand, my former grad student who recently defended her doctoral research, came up with the coating technology in our last study,” Medina said. “It dovetails nicely with our new study, which will use those same coatings to take on the limitations of the cold chain.”

###

Source: https://bioengineer.org/1-million-grant-to-address-cold-storage-logistics-in-vaccine-delivery/

$1-million-grant-to-address-cold-storage-logistics-in-vaccine-delivery

Continue Reading

Bioengineer

Reduced microbial stability linked to soil carbon loss in active layer under alpine permafrost degra

Credit: NIEER Chinese researchers have recently discovered links between reduction in microbial stability and soil carbon loss in the active

Published

on

Chinese researchers have recently discovered links between reduction in microbial stability and soil carbon loss in the active layer of degraded alpine permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP).

The researchers, headed by Prof. CHEN Shengyun from the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources (NIEER) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and XUE Kai from University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, conducted a combined in-depth analysis of soil microbial communities and their co-occurrence networks in the active permafrost layer along an extensive gradient of permafrost degradation.

The QTP encompasses the largest extent of high-altitude mountain permafrost in the world. This permafrost is different than high-latitude permafrost and stores massive soil carbon. An often ignored characteristic of permafrost is that the carbon pool in the active layer soil is more active and directly affected by climate change, compared to deeper layers.

Triggered by climate warming, permafrost degradation may decrease soil carbon stability and induce massive carbon loss, thus leading to positive carbon-climate feedback. However, microbial-mediated mechanisms for carbon loss from the active layer soil in degraded permafrost still remain unclear.

In this study, the researchers found that alpine permafrost degradation reduced the stability of active layer microbial communities as evidenced by increased sensitivity of microbial composition to environmental change, promoted destabilizing network properties and reduced resistance to node or edge attacking of the microbial network.

They discovered that soil organic carbon loss in severely degraded permafrost is associated with increased microbial dissimilarity, thereby potentially contributing to a positive carbon feedback in alpine permafrost on the QTP.

###

The results were published in PNAS in an article entitled “Reduced microbial stability in the active layer is associated with carbon loss under alpine permafrost degradation”.

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Strategic Priority Research Program (A) of CAS and the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program.

Triggered by climate warming, permafrost degradation may decrease soil carbon stability and induce massive carbon loss, thus leading to positive carbon-climate feedback. However, microbial-mediated mechanisms for carbon loss from the active layer soil in degraded permafrost still remain unclear.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/reduced-microbial-stability-linked-to-soil-carbon-loss-in-active-layer-under-alpine-permafrost-degra/

reduced-microbial-stability-linked-to-soil-carbon-loss-in-active-layer-under-alpine-permafrost-degra

Continue Reading

Bioengineer

SNMMI Image of the Year: PET imaging measures cognitive impairment in COVID-19 patients

Credit: G Blazhenets et al., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of

Published

on

Credit: G Blazhenets et al., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg.

Reston, VA–The effects of COVID-19 on the brain can be accurately measured with positron emission tomography (PET), according to research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) 2021 Annual Meeting. In the study, newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients, who required inpatient treatment and underwent PET brain scans, were found to have deficits in neuronal function and accompanying cognitive impairment, and in some, this impairment continued six months after their diagnosis. The detailed depiction of areas of cognitive impairment, neurological symptoms and comparison of impairment over a six-month time frame has been selected as SNMMI’s 2021 Image of the Year.

Each year, SNMMI chooses an image that best exemplifies the most promising advances in the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. The state-of-the-art technologies captured in these images demonstrate the capacity to improve patient care by detecting disease, aiding diagnosis, improving clinical confidence, and providing a means of selecting appropriate treatments. This year, the SNMMI Henry N. Wagner, Jr., Image of the Year was chosen from more than 1,280 abstracts submitted to the meeting and voted on by reviewers and the society leadership.

“As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic proceeds, it has become increasingly clear that neurocognitive long-term consequences occur not only in severe COVID-19 cases, but in mild and moderate cases as well. Neurocognitive deficits like impaired memory, disturbed concentration and cognitive problems may persist well beyond the acute phase of the disease,” said Ganna Blazhenets, PhD, a post-doctoral researcher in Medical Imaging at the University Medical Center Freiburg, in Freiburg, Germany.

To study cognitive impairment associated with COVID-19, researchers carried out a prospective study on recently diagnosed COVID-19 patients who required inpatient treatment for non-neurological complaints. A cognitive assessment was performed, followed by imaging with 18F-FDG PET if at least two new neurological symptoms were present. By comparing COVID-19 patients to controls, the Freiburg group established a COVID-19-related covariance pattern of brain metabolism with most prominent decreases in cortical regions. Across patients, the expression of this pattern showed a very high correlation with the patients’ cognitive performance.

Follow-up PET imaging was performed six months after the initial COVID-19 diagnosis. Imaging results showed a significant improvement in the neurocognitive deficits in most patients, accompanied by an almost complete normalization of the brain metabolism.

“We can clearly state that a significant recovery of regional neuronal function and cognition occurs for most COVID-19 patients based on the results of this study. However, it is important to recognize the evidence of longer-lasting deficits in neuronal function and accompanying cognitive deficits is still measurable in some patients six months after manifestation of disease,” noted Blazhenets. “As a result, post-COVID-19 patients with persistent cognitive complaints should be presented to a neurologist and possibly allocated to cognitive rehabilitation programs.”

“18F-FDG PET is an established biomarker of neuronal function and neuronal injury,” stated SNMMI’s Scientific Program Committee chair, Umar Mahmood, MD, PhD. “As shown the Image of the Year, it can be applied to unravel neuronal correlates of the cognitive decline in patients after COVID-19. Since 18F-FDG PET is widely available, it may therefore aid in the diagnostic work-up and follow-up in patients with persistent cognitive impairment after COVID-19.”

###

Abstract 41. “Altered regional cerebral function and its association with cognitive impairment in COVID 19: A prospective FDG PET study.” Ganna Blazhenets, Johannes Thurow, Lars Frings and Philipp Meyer, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Nils Schroeter, Tobias Bormann, Cornelius Weiller, Andrea Dressing and Jonas Hosp; Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; and Dirk Wagner, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

All 2021 SNMMI Annual Meeting abstracts can be found online at https://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/62/supplement_1.

About the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) is an international scientific and medical organization dedicated to advancing nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, vital elements of precision medicine that allow diagnosis and treatment to be tailored to individual patients in order to achieve the best possible outcomes.

SNMMI’s members set the standard for molecular imaging and nuclear medicine practice by creating guidelines, sharing information through journals and meetings and leading advocacy on key issues that affect molecular imaging and therapy research and practice. For more information, visit http://www.snmmi.org.

“As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic proceeds, it has become increasingly clear that neurocognitive long-term consequences occur not only in severe COVID-19 cases, but in mild and moderate cases as well. Neurocognitive deficits like impaired memory, disturbed concentration and cognitive problems may persist well beyond the acute phase of the disease,” said Ganna Blazhenets, PhD, a post-doctoral researcher in Medical Imaging at the University Medical Center Freiburg, in Freiburg, Germany.

Source: https://bioengineer.org/snmmi-image-of-the-year-pet-imaging-measures-cognitive-impairment-in-covid-19-patients/

snmmi-image-of-the-year:-pet-imaging-measures-cognitive-impairment-in-covid-19-patients

Continue Reading

Title

Crunchbase12 hours ago

Square Rolls Up Afterpay As BNPL Market Stays Hot

Payments platform Square plans to buy Afterpay, an Australian buy now, pay later service, in an all-stock deal valued at...

Bioengineer18 hours ago

$1 million grant to address cold storage logistics in vaccine delivery

Credit: Penn State College of Engineering COVID-19 vaccines have been tested, validated and administered to millions of people around the

Cointelegraph4 days ago

The future of DeFi is spread across multiple blockchains

Creating interoperability, not competition: Multichain solutions will positively impact the blockchain space in terms of accessibility, innovation and economic viability.

Ventureburn4 days ago

ZwartTech launches Talent Foundation to equip Africans with digital skills

Lagos-based ZwartTech has announced the launch of its new edtech, Zwart Talent Foundation (ZTF) in a statement on 30 July...

CNBC6 days ago

Earnings

Corporate Company Earnings, Find Earnings Per Share and Earnings History Online

Bioengineer7 days ago

Reduced microbial stability linked to soil carbon loss in active layer under alpine permafrost degra

Credit: NIEER Chinese researchers have recently discovered links between reduction in microbial stability and soil carbon loss in the active

Reuters1 week ago

Chipmaker TSMC says too early to say on Germany expansion

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co Ltd (TSMC) (2330.TW) said on Monday that it was too early to say whether it will...

Bioengineer1 week ago

SNMMI Image of the Year: PET imaging measures cognitive impairment in COVID-19 patients

Credit: G Blazhenets et al., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of

Techcrunch1 week ago

The DL on CockroachDB – TechCrunch

As college students at Berkeley, Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis created a successful open-source graphics program, GIMP, which got the...

CNBC1 week ago

International: Top News And Analysis

CNBC International is the world leader for news on business, technology, China, trade, oil prices, the Middle East and markets.

Review

    Select language

    Trending